receiving recast was surveyed to see which method of recast Iranian EFL students at the intermediate level preferred their teachers to use, declarative or interrogative. To this end, the researcher explained both declarative and interrogative recasts to the learners while providing examples for each of them on the board. Then, he handed out pieces of papers to the students to survey their preferable recast type.

Data Analysis

In order to compare participants’ progress in the pre- and post-tests for both groups (those receiving overt correction and those receiving declarative and interrogative recasts) paired samples t-tests were run. Then, in order to compare the gain scores of the participants in the overt correction and recast groups, an independent sample t-test was performed. To answer the third research question, percentages were subjected to a chi-square test to check which type of recast, declarative or interrogative, was preferred by the learners who received recast in their class.

Design

The design of this study was a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches, i.e. mixed method. The quantitative findings provided valuable information for the current study to offer a deeper insight into the practice of error treatment in the specific teaching context. In addition to the analysis for quantitative data, the qualitative research design here involved asking participants questions, collecting the views of participants in the form of words, and exploring learners’ preferences for declarative or interrogative recasts.

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Results

Introduction

In this chapter, the results of the data analysis are presented and tabulated as an attempt to find answers to the research questions. A number of statistical analyses including paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test, and a chi-square test were run on the SPSS program.

Results

In order to see if the participants in the two groups enjoyed the same level of grammar knowledge and were homogeneous or not, an independent sample t-test was run on the participants’ pre-test scores. The results are shown in Tables 4.1 and 4.2 below:

Table 4.1

Descriptive Statistics for the Participants’ Homogeneity in the Pre-test

Group

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

pre-test

Recast

۲۵

۱۸.۹۶

۲.۷۴۶

.۵۴۹

Overt Correction

۲۵

۱۸.۲۴

۲.۹۱۹

.۵۸۴

As Table 4.1 indicates, the pre-test mean scores were 18.96 and 18.24 for the recast and overt correction groups respectively. In order to see if the observed difference was significant, the results of the t-test are summarized as follows:

Table 4.2

Independent Samples t-test for the Homogeneity of the Recast and Overt Correction Groups

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

۹۵% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

pre-test

Equal variances assumed

.۰۵۶

.۸۱۳

.۸۹۸

۴۸

.۳۷۴

.۷۲۰

.۸۰۲

-.۸۹۲

۲.۳۳۲

Equal variances not assumed

.۸۹۸

۴۷.۸۱

.۳۷۴

.۷۲۰

.۸۰۲

-.۸۹۲

۲.۳۳۲

According to Table 4.2, since the significance level (0.374) is higher than 0.05, it can be concluded that the difference between the two groups’ pre-test mean scores was not significant. In other words, the participants were homogeneous as far as their grammar knowledge was concerned before they received the instruction.

The descriptive statistics for the overt correction group show that the mean scores of the group in the pre- and post-tests were 18.24 and 25.52, respectively (see Table 4.3). If this difference is found to be statistically significant, one can conclude that they have improved in their grammar performance, and higher accuracy in these tests implies a higher level of their awareness of English grammar.

Table 4.3

Descriptive Statistics for the Overt Correction Group

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

pre-test (Overt Correction)

۱۸.۲۴

۲۵

۲.۹۱۹

.۵۸۴

post-test (Overt Correction)

۲۲.۵۲

۲۵

۲.۵۸۴

.۵۱۷

In order to see if the observed difference was statistically significant, a paired sample t-test was run. The results are presented in Table 4.4 as follows:

Table 4.4

Paired Samples t-test for the Overt Correction Group

Paired Differences

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

۹۵% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Pair 1

pre-test (Overt Correction) – post-test (Overt Correction)

-۴.۲۸۰

۲.۸۰۷

.۵۶۱

-۵.۴۳۸

-۳.۱۲۲

-۷.۶۲۵

۲۴

.۰۰۰

The results of the paired samples t-test for this group presented in Table 4.4 indicate that the observed difference between the mean score of the pre- and post-tests was significant (t=-7.625, df=24). As the significance level is smaller than 0.05, it can be concluded that the difference between students’ pre- and post-test mean scores was statistically significant.

Table 4.4 reveals that the participants’ scores in the post-test in the overt correction group are significantly higher than the scores in the pre-test, and this difference can be attributed to the helpful role of the treatment with overt correction feedback. Higher scores mean a higher level of learners’ awareness of English grammar.

The descriptive statistics for the recast group presented in Table 4.5 indicate that the mean scores of the group in the pre- and post-tests were 18.96 and 23 respectively. If this difference is found to be statistically significant, one can conclude that they have improved in their grammar performance, and higher accuracy in these tests implies a higher level of their awareness of English grammar.

Table 4.5

Descriptive Statistics for the Recast Group

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

pre-test (Recast)

۱۸.۹۶

۲۵

۲.۷۴۶

.۵۴۹

post-test (Recast)

۲۳.۰۰

۲۵

۳.۲۲۷

.۶۴۵

In order to see whether the difference was significant, a paired sample t-test was run. The results are tabulated as follows:

Table 4.6

Paired Samples t-test for the Recast Group

Paired Differences

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

۹۵% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Pair 1

pre-test (Recast) – post-test (Recast)

-۴.۰۴۰

۲.۵۴۱

.۵۰۸

-۵.۰۸۹

-۲.۹۹۱

-۷.۹۵۰

۲۴

.۰۰۰

The results of the paired sample t-test for this group presented in Table 4.6 indicate that the observed difference between the mean score of the learners in the pre- and post-tests was significant (t=-7.950, df=24). As the significance level is smaller than 0.05, it can be concluded that the difference between the students’ pre- and post-test mean scores was statistically significant. This difference can be attributed to the effective role of recast.

Table 4.7 below indicates the results of group statistics for the gramm

ar gain scores of both recast and overt correction groups. The m